XEE: XML Entity Attack (XXE)

XML entity attack, also known as Billion Laughs Attack, is a type of security vulnerability that exploits the way XML parsers handle entity expansion. It can lead to denial-of-service (DoS) attacks by overwhelming the system’s resources with excessive entity expansions. History The XML entity attack was first discovered and demonstrated in 2002 by David Kuhn, […]

x509: History

X.509 certificates have become a fundamental component of secure communication on the internet. They provide authentication, encryption, and integrity for various applications and protocols. In this blog post, we will delve into the intriguing history of X.509 certificates, tracing their origins, evolution, and significant milestones. The journey of X.509 certificates from their inception to their […]


Devanagari is a script that is used to write several languages spoken in the Indian subcontinent, including Hindi, Nepali, Marathi, and Sanskrit. The word “Devanagari” is derived from two Sanskrit words: “Dev” which means God or deity, and “Nagari” which means city or script. Thus, Devanagari is often referred to as the script of the […]

Tunnel: SSH

SSH tunneling is a powerful technique that allows you to securely tunnel network traffic between two endpoints. SSH tunneling can be used for a variety of purposes, including bypassing network security restrictions, accessing resources on a remote network, and encrypting network traffic. There are three types of SSH tunneling: Each type of tunneling has its […]